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Table of Contents

What is Pure Water?

Pure water refers to the H₂O without impurities, It is pure, clean, and does not contain impurities or bacteria water, such as organic pollutants, inorganic salts, any additives, and all kinds of impurities. It is made of raw water that meets the sanitary standard of drinking water and is sealed in a container by means of electrodialysis, ion exchange, reverse osmosis, distillation, and other appropriate processing methods, and does not contain any additives, colorless and transparent, can be drunk directly.

pure water

Preparation Technology of Pure Water

Purified water is mainly produced by the following methods:

1. Electrodialysis

Electrodialysis, or Ed, is a membrane separation technique using electrical energy. Electrodialysis is driven by direct current and utilizes the selective permeability of anion and cation exchange membranes to water, a separation process in which ions from one body of water are transferred through a membrane to another body of water. This is a Unit operation process in which a solution can be desalinated, concentrated, purified, or refined.

electrodialysis pilot plant

2. Distillation

Distillation is the use of different substances of volatile (boiling point) different, to achieve the separation of different substances.
Distillation is a common method for separating and purifying liquid mixtures.
In addition, in order to remove some special impurities, also need to take some special measures.
For example, some potassium permanganate can be pre-added to remove easy oxides.
Adding a little phosphoric acid can remove iron trivalent.
Add a little non-volatile acid that can be made into ammonia-free water.
Distilled water can meet the requirements of ordinary analytical laboratories.


3. Ion Exchange

The various inorganic salts in the raw water ionize to produce the positive (calcium, magnesium, copper, sodium, and other metal ions) and the negative ions (carbonate, nitrate, sulfate, and other non-metal ions), after the cation and anion resin layer (ion exchange column in the exchange of ion agent), with the resin on the hydrogen ion and hydroxide exchange reaction and be resin adsorption. The hydrogen ions displaced from the resin combine with the hydroxide to form the water molecule (H2O), thus achieving the effect of removing inorganic salts from the water, thus achieving the purpose of making desalinated pure water. But it’s not easy to regenerate. More than ten M ω deionized water can be obtained by the ion-exchange method. But organic matter can not be removed, TOC and COD are often higher than raw water. This is because the resin is not good, or the resin pretreatment is not complete, a resin containing oligomers, monomers, additives, etc. not removed, or resin instability, constantly releasing decomposition products.

ion exchange to soften water

4. Reverse Osmosis

The raw water is subjected to fine filters, granular activated carbon filters, activated carbon filters, etc., and then pressurized by a pump, a reverse osmosis membrane (RO membrane) with a pore size of 1/10000μm (1/6000 of the size of E. coli and 1/300 of the size of a virus) was used to change the high concentration water into the low concentration water, at the same time, industrial pollutants, heavy metals, bacteria, viruses and other impurities mixed into the water are all isolated, so as to meet the drinking requirements of physical and chemical indicators and health standards. Reverse osmosis equipment using membrane separation technology can effectively remove the water-charged ions, inorganic, colloidal particles, bacteria, and organic substances.

reverse osmosis

The raw water is subjected to fine filters, granular activated carbon filters, activated carbon filters, etc., and then pressurized by a pump, a reverse osmosis membrane (RO membrane) with a pore size of 1/10000μm (1/6000 of the size of E. coli and 1/300 of the size of a virus) was used to change the high concentration water into the low concentration water, at the same time, industrial pollutants, heavy metals, bacteria, viruses and other impurities mixed into the water are all isolated, so as to meet the drinking requirements of physical and chemical indicators and health standards. Reverse osmosis equipment using membrane separation technology can effectively remove the water-charged ions, inorganic, colloidal particles, bacteria, and organic substances.

blue planet

In general, only 50-75% of the source water is used in the production of purified water, that is to say, only about 0.4 kg of purified water can be produced from 1 kg of tap water or groundwater, the remaining 0.6 kilograms of water can not be used as drinking water, can only be used for other purposes.

The process of drinking purified water is as follows:

Raw water – Sand filter – Carbon filter – Fine filter – 1st Stage Reverse Osmosis – 2nd Stage Reverse Osmosis – Ozone Sterilization – Pure Water

Does Pure Water Taste Good?

Pure water is water that has been purified from natural water. After several processes, the purified water is removed from harmful substances, some mineral elements, and bacteria, so it can be drunk directly.

purity water

Is long-term Drinking Pure Water Really Harmful to the Human Body?

Some health experts recommend at least eight glasses of water a day, but there are no exact rules. The amount of water required varies from person to person, depending on the subject’s condition and the amount of physical activity required, and the temperature and humidity of the environment.

the daily sources of water for people

The daily sources of water for people include drinking water, beverages, water, and water in food. The intake of mineral nutrients in drinking water is also unclear. In general, inorganic minerals enter the surface and groundwater through rainwater runoff or through the earth’s crust, leaving water containing compounds of calcium, zinc, manganese, phosphorus, fluorine, and sodium.

Nutrients derived from the water provide an important part of the daily water requirements of some arthropods and desert animals, but only a small part of the necessary intake of human beings, therefore, there is no scientific basis for drinking pure water for a long time. But drinking too much water can also lead to water intoxication (which can lead to hyponatremia).

Can Long-term Drinking Pure Water be Malnourished?

The reverse osmosis membranes that filter purified water remove bacterial impurities from the water, replenish the body with needed water, and help excrete toxins in a short period of time.

Drink water primarily for hydration, not for micronutrients. Most of the minerals and micronutrients in the body come from vegetables, fruits, rice, meat, etc., not from drinking water.

thirsty man

Diet is the main way for the human body to ingest nutrient elements, but water plays a very small role. Zhong Kai, deputy director of the Kexin Food and nutrition information exchange center, said, “nutrient elements don’t just disappear when water is washed away.” Nutrient loss is related to natural conditions, age, exercise, and physical fitness, it’s not just the water that makes the difference.

The body contains too much mineral water will cause an unnecessary burden to the human body, and some minerals may not be absorbed by the human body, if long-term accumulation in the body, will directly affect human health.

7 Facts about Pure Water

Recently, rumors about all kinds of drinks have been rampant, such as “drinking pure water will make people acidic” and “drinking pure water for a long time will lead to the loss of nutrients”.

So is pure water harmful to the human body?

bottled pure water

In fact, as long as it meets the national drinking water hygiene standards, it is safe, healthy, and harmless, and this water can be drunk safely.

The following is a variety of rumors related to pure water in recent years, which can help you understand the relevant knowledge of pure water more comprehensively.

Myth 1: Drinking pure water will make you acidic.

Truth: Drinking water won’t change the PH levels.

The pH value of body fluids is less affected by the outside. Pure water refers to the water purified by filtration, heating, distillation, etc. . Depending on the purification method, there are different types of purified water. For example, filtered water is treated by filtration reverse osmosis, while distilled water is treated by heating. The filtered water treated by reverse osmosis contains a small number of micronutrients, while the distilled water treated at high temperature basically no longer contains any. It’s not true that purified water does not contain any micronutrients, just through treatment, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, and other essential mineral elements of the human body are significantly reduced.

alkaline diet

Experts of China Food Rumor Refuting Alliance said, confirmed by the Food and Drug Administration, China Institute of Food Science and Technology, China Nutrition Society, and Kexin Food and Nutrition Information Exchange Center, neither weak acid nor weak alkaline water becomes acidic when we drink it because we have hydrochloric acid with a pH of around 2.0 in our stomachs. Even if we drink the weakly alkaline water, it will become completely acidic in our stomachs. And then it goes to the Intestinal, and water becomes alkaline again, that’s the environment that our alimentary bacteria like.

According to a professor in the Department of Physiology at Peking University, in the theory of Western medicine, the human body is neither acidic nor alkaline, because the human body itself has a strong acid-base regulation function, the external influence on it is very small, even if the human body ingests acidic or alkaline substances, it will be quickly neutralized by this regulatory function.

ph levels of human body

According to an associate professor at Tongji Medical College, the normal pH of body fluids is between 7.35 and 7.45, although the body is constantly producing and ingesting acids and bases, there was no significant change in the pH of the body fluids. Because on the one hand, the body fluid is a buffer system, pH is less affected by the outside. On the other hand, lung and kidney regulation will reduce the significant changes in pH.

Drinking purified water over a long period of time does not cause the body fluids to become more acidic.

Therefore, the so-called “only to drink alkaline water is good, drinking weak acidic water harmful” is not based on science, which is misleading propaganda. As long as drinking water is in line with the national health standards, whether it is a weak acid or weak alkaline, can be assured to drink.

Long-term drinking of pure water does not cause body fluids to become more acidic. Therefore, the so-called “alkaline water is better for humans, drinking weak acidic water is harmful” is not a scientific basis, and is misleading propaganda. Drinking water can be safely drunk as long as it meets the national sanitary standards, no matter whether it is a weak acid or weak alkaline.

Myth 2: Drinking pure water over a long period of time will lead to mal-nutrition.

Fact: Mal-nutrition is not caused by drinking water.

Diet is the main way for the human body to ingest nutrient elements, but water plays a very small role. Zhong Kai, deputy director of the Food and nutrition information exchange center, said, “nutrients are not washed away by water. People are not sieves. It’s not that simple.” Nutrition loss and natural conditions, age, exercise, physical fitness, and so on are related, and It’s not just drinking water that makes the difference.

mal nutrition

Myth 3: Drinking pure water causes calcium deficiency.

Fact: Drinking pure water for a long time does not cause calcium loss in the body.

“There is no scientific evidence that pure water causes calcium loss in the human body,” said a researcher with the Institute of Environmental and Health of the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. “The claim that drinking pure water is harmful to health lacks sufficient scientific basis,” he said. “Pure water that meets the standard is safe and harmless, and consumers can choose according to their own needs.”

Some people think that drinking pure water will decalcify and lead to osteoporosis, which is a lack of understanding of human physiology, said Zhong Kai, deputy director of the Kexin Food and Nutrition Information Exchange Center. ”

calcium deficiency

“The concentration of ions in body fluids is relatively balanced, and calcium is no exception. The humoral fluid of a 60 kg adult is about 36-42 kg, and the amount of drinking water a day does not exceed 2L, So drinking water doesn’t have much effect on calcium concentration.

The main factors that contribute to calcium loss are age, hormone levels, and dietary intake. Bone calcium deposits are not like dirt on your clothes that can be rubbed away with soap.”

Myth 4: Drinking pure water for a long time can lead to muscle weakness and rickets

Truth: Chondropathy, not pure water, is to blame for rickets

Experts believe that the most important factor leading to calcium deficiency is inadequate dietary calcium intake, hormone levels, vitamin D levels, sunlight exposure, exercise, and no relationship with what to drink water. “people in the Middle East basically drink pure water, and there is no large-scale calcium deficiency.” The main role of water in the body is to promote human metabolism, not to provide nutrition.


Even mineral water, which “contains more minerals and trace elements,” fails to replenish calcium, magnesium, and other important minerals needed for bone development. Mr. Shen Zhiping, honorary chairman of The Chinese Nutrition Association, clearly pointed out that the main source of various nutrients needed by the human body is food or food supplements, rather than water.

As an authoritative document to guide countries on safe drinking water, the World Health Organization (WHO-RRB- guidelines for drinking-water quality have never made any recommendations on the mineral content of water.

At present, there is no authoritative study to prove that drinking pure water on a daily basis is dangerous to health, and it is generally accepted that the main source of daily intake of minerals is food, not drinking water.

regular brand bottled water

Myth 5: Pure water contains preservatives, so you need to drink it in 1 day.

Fact: There is no need to add preservatives to pure water, and bottled water can last a few days.

“There is no need to add preservatives to bottled water,” said Lu Qing, an associate professor at the Tongji Medical College’s public health, ode Air and microorganisms can not enter the interior of the container. When water is opened, both air and microorganism come into contact with water, which is beneficial to the growth of bacteria and microorganisms. Therefore, after opened, the shelf life of purified water and mineral water is about 15 days.


” Bottled water does not contain organic substances and there is no aging problem,” said Wang mindful, a professor at the School of Biological Sciences at the University of Hong Kong. Added Xu Guoxun, Professor of Environmental Engineering at the University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, “The pure water with all the ions removed should not deteriorate after a few days because the water only contains hydrogen and oxygen, and they will remain stable and will not go bad.”

Myth 6: pure water contains no micronutrient; it is “poor water”

Truth: as long as the quality of the water is up to standard, it makes no difference whether you drink plain water, purified water, or mineral water.

“The role of water in the body is not to supply minerals and trace elements, so what does it matter if minerals are in the water or not?


“The minerals and trace elements in natural water are extremely small, and the body’s intake of minerals and trace elements is mainly from eating food, not from drinking water.” Gu Jiu, secretary-general of the China Water Purification Industry Association, said, “First of all, water is the first of the seven nutrients (water, protein, fat, carbohydrates, minerals and trace elements, vitamins, and cellulose) needed by the human body. In this sense, pure water is a pure nutrient. Water, which contains all seven nutrients, does not exist in nature, and even if it does exist today, it is not water, but an omnipotent nutrient solution.

Can Pure Water also be Polluted?

The factors of pure water polluted by microorganisms are various, but they are mainly secondary pollution in the production process. The following are three main factors.

pure water bottling line

1. Production departments do not pay attention to food hygiene, and supervision of the strength is not enough.

In the production process, the rules and regulations have not been implemented and implemented, we found in the investigation that some factories have modern factory buildings, advanced foreign production machines, and perfect air purification and disinfection equipment, however, the total number of the colony of purified water produced in each batch was different greatly. It is reported that water treatment terminal filters and filling workers are the key links to microbial contamination in bottled mineral water production. In the process of pure water production, every link may contaminate the microorganism, which depends on the health consciousness of the producer and the strict execution of the operation rules.

water testing

2. Unreasonable production technology and imperfect facilities are also the main factors that lead to excessive microorganisms.

In different water sources, the production of different types of purified water process is different, the general principle is to achieve the premise of purification, the simpler the process, the better, the shorter the process easier to control the sanitary quality of products. The process flow of purified water is water source → filtration → purification → ozone mixed disinfection → filling → inspection → storage. The advantage of this process is that there is still ozone in the bottled purified water, and if a small number of microorganisms are brought in from the air between the bottle cap and the filling, the aim of killing and keeping the product sterile can also be achieved. We have learned that some manufacturers do not fill pure water directly after ozone mixed disinfection, but through the storage tank after a certain period of time after refilling, the results of testing found the presence of bacteria. It has been reported that the concentration of ozone in water decreases significantly after about 2 to 8 lifetimes of ozone left for 0.5 to 2 Hrs before the water is bottled, even though the treated water itself is sterile, however, the residual bacteria re-introduced by the packaging or the air in the filling room can not be killed when the bottles are filled. From the above theory, this process, the bottle and cap, and filling must be sterile, otherwise, there must be microorganisms in the product, but the actual work is difficult to do.

pure water production

3. Low level of technology and unfamiliarity with the performance of various equipment are also contributing factors to microbial contamination.

In our on-site investigation, we found that the technical personnel of some factories have only a superficial understanding of the ozone generator and the facilities for controlling microorganisms, which are effective in killing microorganisms, despite the installation of ozone generators and air purification equipment, which are currently considered to be the most effective in the disinfection of purified water, their effective performance or their most effective role in production can not be applied, and microorganisms are often detected in products. The basic principle of using ozone to treat purified water is that ozone is mixed with water, and the concentration of ozone in the water finally reaches 0.5 mg/L to meet the requirement of sterilization, enterprises should be based on the actual use of an ozone generator to calculate the amount of ozone should be produced.

polluted pure water

4. Some manufacturers can not correctly use and maintain to ensure the normal operation of purification equipment and the best purification effect.

Some manufacturers always think that the water installed with purification equipment is sterile, the product will definitely pass, and there is no regular testing of the degree of water purification, the above phenomenon reflects that the technical level of technical personnel directly affects the health quality of products.

Pure Water VS High Pure Water

From an academic point of view, high purity water refers to water with extremely high chemical purity. It is mainly used in the fields of biology, chemical industry, metallurgy, aerospace, and electric power, but its requirement for water quality purity is quite high, so the most common application is in the electronics industry. For example, pure water used in power systems requires a minimum of “micrograms/liters” of impurities.

high purity water

In the manufacture of high purity water, the indicators specified in the water quality standards shall be based on the production process of the electronic (microelectronic) component (or material)(if the size of the particulate matter which is generally considered to cause circuit performance damage is 1/5-1/10 of its linewidth), however, due to the complexity of microelectronic technology and various factors affecting the quality of products, there is not yet a complete water quality standard for a certain circuit. The electronic water standard is also being revised constantly, and many breakthroughs and developments in the field of high purity water analysis and the continuous application of new instruments and new analytical methods have created conditions for the development of the water-making process.

During the production of high purity water,

  1. The anions and cations in water can be removed by electrodialysis, reverse osmosis, and Ion-exchange resin.
  2. Water particles can generally be removed by ultrafiltration, membrane filtration, and other technologies.
  3. At present, the bacteria in the water are mostly removed by adding medicine or ultraviolet lamp irradiation, or ozone sterilization.
  4. TOC in water is treated with activated carbon and reverse osmosis.
high purity water production equipment

In the field of high purity water applications, the purity of water is directly related to the performance, reliability, and threshold voltage of the device, resulting in the low breakdown, defects, and minority carrier lifetime of the material, therefore, high purity water requires a high degree of purity and precision.

The main reason why high purity water can not be used as drinking water is that the dissolved gases in natural water are mainly O2, CO2, SO2, and a small amount of CH4, radon, chlorine, etc., this type of gas must also be removed. In order to remove impurities effectively, chemical fungicides such as formaldehyde, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium hypochlorite are added during the production of high purity water.

plastic bottles

What Is the Best Water for Long-term Drinking?

Boiled water is purified water boiled from tap water. Pure water is prepared by reverse osmosis, ion exchange, distillation, and other processes to remove the vast majority of impurities in water. Mineral water is water containing a certain amount of calcium, potassium, magnesium, sodium, strontium, metabolic acid, and other mineral salts.

Whether plain boiled water, pure water, or mineral water, long-term drinking has the same effect on health because the purpose of drinking water is just to replenish water, not to supplement nutrition.

So whether mineral water, pure water, or tap water, as long as the water quality meets the drinking water hygiene standards, it‘s safe to drink, you can drink whatever you want.

Jennifer Wang

Jennifer Wang

Hi, I’m Jennifer Wang, the funder of Joygino.com, I’ve been running a factory in China that makes water pipe cleaning equipment for 10 years now, and the purpose of this article is to share with you the knowledge related to pipeline cleaning from a Chinese supplier’s perspective.

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